1. The Quran, from the latter half of verse 13, sura 34. Here are verses 10 – 13 quoted in full:

    10. We favoured David with excellence, (and commanded):
    “O Jibal and Tair, glorify the greatness of God with him.”
    And We made iron pliable for him.
    11. “Make long coats of mail,” (We said), “and fix their links, and do it right.
    I surely see whatsoever you do.”
    12. We (subjugated) the wind to Solomon.
    Its morning’s journey took one month,
    and the evening’s one month.
    We made a spring of molten brass to flow for him;
    and many jinns laboured for him by the will of his Lord.
    Anyone of them who turned from Our command
    was made to taste the torment of blazing fire.
    13. They made for him whatever he wished,
    synagogues and statues, dishes large as water-troughs,
    and cauldrons firmly fixed (on ovens; and We said):
    “O House of David, act, and give thanks.”
    But few among My creatures are thankful.

2. The expression probably refers to the belief within Islam that with Mohammad, who is the last and most perfect prophet, the time of the prophets and of prophecy came to an end.

3. Akefan might reasonably be translated into English as monk or hermit, but the Christian connotations of those words seemed to me inappropriate for a text rooted in Islam.

4. To have a long tongue is to be a person who speaks rudely, especially to people who are of a higher station, or who have more power, than you and to whom you are therefore obligated to speak respectfully.

5. The Quran, Sura 3, verse 134. Here are verses 130 – 135:

    130. O you who believe, do not practice usury,
    charging doubled and redoubled (interest);
    but have fear of God:
    you may well attain your goal.
    131. Keep away from the Fire prepared for infidels;
    132. Obey God and the Prophet,
    that you may be treated with mercy.
    133. And hasten for the pardon of your Lord,
    and for Paradise extending
    over the heavens and the earth, laid out for those
    who take heed for themselves and fear God,
    134. Who expend both in joy and tribulation,
    who suppress their anger and pardon their fellowmen;
    and God loves those who are upright and do good,
    135. And those who, if they commit a shameful act
    or some wrong against themselves, remember God
    and seek forgiveness for their sins:
    For who can forgive except God?

6. Feridun is one of the hero kings of the Shahnameh, the Persian national epic.